Germany

Collective self-consumers

Germany is a country with an already long tradition with CSC schemes on building scale. In 2017, the so-called “Mieterstrommodell” has been legally introduced (BMWI  2017).  This  model allows  the  plant operator in a multifamily house to sell locally produced electricity to the tenants in direct proximity. The unclear   definition   of   proximity   has   led   to   a   range   of   individual   case-related   legal   decisions (Verbraucherzentrale 2018). The plant operator has the status of an electricity supplier. In case of multi apartment buildings, the  plant  operator  receives  a self-consumption support from the DSO  of  2.1 – 3.7 Cent/kWh  for  PV  electricity, depending  on  the  plant  size, for  a  period  of  20  years (Bundesnetzagentur 2017). According to the law, the precondition is that the PV plant has a maximum capacity of 100 kW and is installed in a residential building. In order to receive support, the plant operator can sell the electricity to  either:  a)  tenants  of  the  building  or  b)  owners  of  apartments  in  the  building.  The  entire  capacity supported  per  year  is  500  MW.  The  German  law  explicitly  states  that,  in  case  storage  is  used,  the  self-consumed electricity after storage rather than the stored electricity defines the self-consumption subsidy. For electricity fed into the grid, the plant operator still receives a feed-in tariff/premium. Collective self-consumers, as opposed to simple self-consumers, have to pay the “EEG surcharge”. This surcharge is part of the retail electricity price and finances the German renewables support scheme (EEG).  In  a  proposal  for  an  amendment  of  the  EEG in  2021, the self-consumption  support and  capacity  limits would be increased to between 3.79 €Cent/kWh (up to 10kW) and 2.73 €Cent/kWh up to a size of 500 kW (Federal Government of Germany 2020).

Source: Frieden et al., 2020

RECs and CECs

Germany has no regulatory framework for RECs and CECs yet.