Collective self-consumers

In 2016, Greece introduced a law on virtual net metering that was applicable to farmers and municipalities. Thereby, a first step toward collective energy sharing was undertaken. For net-metering and virtual net metering installations, charges for public service obligations are calculated according to the total consumption (sum of energy withdrawn from the network + consumption from behind the meter). Network charges, renewable energy levies, and other regulated charges are only charged for the energy physically withdrawn from the public network (excluding consumption behind the meter but also excluding energy netting) (HEDNO 2018).

Source: Frieden et al., 2020

RECs and CECs

In 2018, a law on energy communities (law N4513/2018) was introduced, which also expanded the scope of virtual net metering to energy communities. The law defines Energy Communities as urban partnerships with the aim of social and solidarity economy, and innovation in the energy sector. Energy communities are supposed to reduce energy poverty and to promote energy sustainability, production, storage, own consumption, distribution and supply, self-sufficiency and security in island municipalities. They are also expected to support the efficiency in end-use at local and regional level, cogeneration, rational energy use, energy efficiency, sustainable transport, and demand-side management. For the case of energy communities, the right to be involved in virtual net metering can be provided to natural and/or legal persons that are members of the energy community. This particular right can also be provided to vulnerable consumers or citizens living under the poverty limit if the energy community wishes to include them in the relevant contracts for virtual net metering. These persons do not necessarily have to be members of the energy community but shall live in the same district where the energy community is established.

Source: Frieden et al., 2020